Brexit Association Agreement

Some new agreements will not be in force until the UK leaves the EU. Trade will then take place under the terms of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The INTER agreement between the EU and Ukraine is considered a `mixed agreement`, which means that ratification is necessary (once agreed) at member state level. In theory, it is in the same category as the five-year free trade agreement with Canada, and several more before it came into force. The ECJ`s role in this model is potentially problematic, as it would go beyond a red line defined by the British government. For any association agreement between the UK and the EU, the use of the EFTA Court of Justice (which is part of the EEA agreement) may offer a compromise solution (as proposed by Carl Baudenbacher, former President of the EFTA Court of Justice – see this article below). Changes to the table „Trade Agreements outstanding“: „Percentage of total trade in the UK, 2018“ has been updated following the publication of trade statistics from the Office for National Statistics. Both sides issued their negotiating mandates at the end of February. According to the British document, London wants an agreement „on the model of free trade agreements already concluded… canada and other friendly countries,“ with an Australian relationship as a fallback. Given that the EU is in a state of trade with Australia under WTO terms, this last point is an understatement for a hard Brexit without a trade deal. In many areas, the UK mandate is based on existing EU bilateral trade agreements.

Second, after Brexit, the UK will be able to conclude new agreements, for example with India or the United States. In fact, 40% of the UK`s trade is tapped with countries with which the EU does not have a free trade agreement, including the United States as the UK`s main trading partner. The UK has high hopes for these agreements, relies on free trade and expects it to be able to offer attractive offers to its partners. On the basis of good historical relations, London hopes for good access to Commonwealth countries and the United States.